Lexicon = the vocabulary
Lexical items = (the words) make up the lexicon. To be a lexical item it has to be part of your lexicon, your dialect. It has to be something in use and understandable. (Note, not all lexemes are lexical items – people understand made up words because of the grammar rules outside of the conversation, so if I said ‘I will redify that wall with paint’ you will know I mean I will turn that wall red).
Progressive Participle = -ing, in the state of doing something
Perfect Participle = -ed, -en (past tense)
Morphology = the study of word forms
Affix = Something that is added to a word such as a prefix or a suffix
Prefix = Before – DEvalue, DEform
Suffix = After – devaluED, deformED
Inflectional Morpheme = catS, workED – it adds the word to a different syntactical category whether it makes it plural or past. It does not change the lexeme.
Derivational Morpheme = drinkABLE, NONsense, classIFY – it does change the lexeme. For example in ‘classify’ it changes the noun, class into a verb, to classify.
Infinitive = the form of the verb which does not show any syntactic category
Agreement = when the verb agrees with the subject, in terms of person and number. For example – I work, she works
The Head = WORK is the head of the verb WORKed as it is the more dominant bit of the word
– Phones = the basic sounds that make up all human languages
– Phonemes = the sub-set of phones that function within a specific language
– Phonetic Alphabet = Designed to represent PHONES. Made up of phonetic symbols
– Phonemic Alphabet = Designed to represent PHONEMES.